If the swirls are put into the paint by rubbing the paint dry with microfiber, etc., or going through a carwash with brushes, its all the same type of damage. But it can be removed by any good detailer using the proper grit compound and pad with either a Random Orbital Machine or a Rotary Polisher, or even by hand, but it might take a lot longer.
If the scratches/swirls are really deep and bad, and the paint measures up to more than enough clearcoat, then sometimes the damage can be sanded off and the finish then compounded to bring the shine back, very level and glossy.
Sometimes, all that is needed is to buff the paint with a purple foam wool pad with the appropriate compound and this will accomplish the swirl/scratch, etc., removal.
Not sure what your "autobody specialist" meant by the scratches being all the way to the Primer, but if they went that far then you probably need a repaint..